En vs dans with locations (prepositions)

Dans (+ un/une, le/la/l'/les, des) and en are both used to mean inside/in with respect to locations like town or class.

Note that the meaning changes slightly:

- dans (+ article) is a specific locationin THE ... 
- en is more of a general statementin ...

Je suis en classe 
I'm in class

Je suis dans la classe
I'm in the classroom

Je vais en ville
I'm going to town

Il y a une boulangerie dans la ville
There is a bakery in the town

 

When referring to the streetroad, avenue, or boulevard people live on (using habiter), you can either use dans la/le, simply la/le or nothing at all.


BUT you can NEVER use sur (i.e. on) in that context!

J'habite dans la rue Pasteur.
I live on Rue Pasteur.

J'habite rue Pasteur.
I live on Pasteur Road.

J'habite la rue Pasteur.
I live on Rue Pasteur.

Avec être (to be) or vivre (to live), you can use either dans la/le OR nothing at all.

Ce magasin est dans l'avenue Jeanne d'Arc.
This shop is on Avenue Jeanne d'Arc.

Ce magasin est avenue Jeanne d'Arc.
This shop is on Avenue Jeanne d'Arc.

 

ATTENTION: Case of avenue

You can use sur l'avenue when used with se promener (to have a walk).

Nous aimons nous promener sur l'avenue.
We like to have a walk on the avenue.




Learn more about these related French grammar topics

Examples and resources

Il y a une boulangerie dans la ville
There is a bakery in the town


Je suis en classe de français
I'm in French class


Je vais en ville
I'm going to town


Nous aimons nous promener sur l'avenue.
We like to have a walk on the avenue.



J'habite la rue Pasteur.
I live on Rue Pasteur.


Je suis en classe 
I'm in class


J'habite rue Pasteur.
I live on Pasteur Road.


Je suis dans la classe
I'm in the classroom


Ce magasin est dans l'avenue Jeanne d'Arc.
This shop is on Avenue Jeanne d'Arc.


Il y a eu une émeute dans la prison.
There's been a riot in the prison.


Je suis dans ma classe de français
I'm in/with my French group


Ce magasin est avenue Jeanne d'Arc.
This shop is on Avenue Jeanne d'Arc.


Le voleur est en prison.
The thief is in prison.


dans = on + street


J'habite dans la rue Pasteur.
I live on Rue Pasteur.


Q&A

Joan

Kwiziq community member

6 April 2018

1 reply

Hi Chris, I found the following sentences in other website (I 'm not sure whether we can discuss things from other sources):

(1) J'aimerais aller dans le collège. (2) Je veux aller dans la jungle. (3) On va aller dans le bureau

"dans" in these 3 sentences mean "to". Can I conclude that 'dans' and "à" are interchangable when they mean "to"?

Chris

Kwiziq community member

6 April 2018

6/04/18

Hi Joan,


Ah, I see. As I am a German native speaker "dans" to me means "in" as I would translate "dans" as "in" in all the examples you gave there. Sorry, about the mixup.


I would really appreciate the backup and feedback of a true French native speaker on this, but I'll offer my understanding nonetheless.


To me, "aller dans le jungle" means to go in the jungle, i.e., hike in the jungle. To go to the jungle, e.g., to travel to the jungle in order to venture inside, I would use "aller à la jungle".


Similarly, I would prefer "aller au collège" to mean "to go to college". "Aller dans", to my understanding, means to go inside, whereas "aller à" stands for "to go to".


I hope Amélie is going to chime in on that.


-- Chris (not a native speaker).


P.S.: I would not hesitate to pull in examples from other websites to be discussed here in the context of kwiziq lessons.

Joan

Kwiziq community member

5 April 2018

2 replies

How to differentiate between à and dans when both mean 'to'?

(For location other than countries, cities, continents, regions, states, etc) Like going 'to' a market, school, or some other place

Chris

Kwiziq community member

5 April 2018

5/04/18

Hi Joan,


Did you really mean "à" and "dans"? Because "dans" means "in" and "à" can assume a lot of meanings but "in" isn't normally one of them. From the lesson you are referring to, could it be that you mean "en" and "dans"?


If I go to the lesson page of the one you refer to and scroll all the way down to the bottom I find a whole lot of posts dealing with this issue. Does any one of them speak to the question you have? If not, can you post an example which gives you a problem?


-- Chris. (not a native speaker).

Cécile

Kwiziq language super star

5 July 2018

5/07/18

Hi Joan,


In all the examples you give we would use :


'à + article' , so:


Nous allons au marché, à l'école, à la plage, au bureau, au collège etc...


We say 'dans la jungle' oddly enough, but I think it is to convey how difficult it is to get into it...


If you say 'inside' in English it will normally be 'dans' that we use.


Hope this helps!

Joseph

Kwiziq community member

2 April 2018

5 replies

'En' other uses

When 'in' is used in other contexts, apart from physical locations, would 'en' be used?

E.g. En réalité - In reality

Je suis fort en langues vivantes - I am strong in Foreign Languages

En industrie du bâtiment - In the building industry

Ces médicaments sont en sirop - This medication is in (the form of) syrup

Paul est rentré en colère - Paul returned home in Anger

By the way, please correct if wrong, thank you

r

Kwiziq community member

2 April 2018

2/04/18

I can't help but a dictionary definition of en will help

Chris

Kwiziq community member

2 April 2018

2/04/18

The pronoun "en" is a true chameleon in French because it is used in so many contexts. Basically there are three:


1) "En" used spatially as a more general version of "in/inside".
2) "En" used temporally to state a timeframe within which something happens.
3) "En" used in pronomial phrases to replace an object normally introduced by "de".


There are dedicated lessons for all three uses within kwiziq.


-- Chris (not a native speaker).

Chris

Kwiziq community member

2 April 2018

2/04/18

Hi Joseph,


I think you got the general idea. Your examples appear correct to me, although the input of a native speaker would shed even more light on this.


-- Chris (not a native speaker).

Joseph

Kwiziq community member

2 April 2018

2/04/18

Thank you very much, I feel more reassured now :) I'd say above 'à' and 'de', 'en' has been my trickiest preposition, but I guess it can sink in over time.


Joe, French A-Level Student

Cécile

Kwiziq language super star

2 May 2018

2/05/18

Hi Joseph,


Just to correct some of your examples :


Dans l'industrie du bâtiment


Ces médicaments sont sous forme de sirop.


Paul s'est mis en colère


or


Paul est entré dans une colère noire.


and I do agree that 'à', 'de' and 'en'  can be very intuitive but you will get used to them with practice.


Hope this helps!


 


 

Joan

Kwiziq community member

4 February 2018

1 reply

Elle est à la maison/ Elle est dans la maison / Elle est en maison?

Which one is correct? What is their difference?

Chris

Kwiziq community member

5 February 2018

5/02/18

"Elle est à la maison" -- She is at home.
"Elle est dans la maison" -- She is in the house

I don't think "Elle est en maison" is correct.

-- Chris.

Joan

Kwiziq community member

4 February 2018

1 reply

What is the difference between:

Chris

Kwiziq community member

7 February 2018

7/02/18

Hi Joan, did you have a question over and beyond what is explained in the lesson? If so, what is it specifically?


-- Chris.

richa

Kwiziq community member

4 January 2018

6 replies

Why "Mon père est dans le prison." incorrect?

Cécile

Kwiziq language super star

4 January 2018

4/01/18

The correct expression is "mon père est en prison" because it means 'incarcerated' which is a general statement as explained in the lesson above.


Note the absence of the article (by the way prison is feminine so it would have been la prison).

Chris

Kwiziq community member

4 January 2018

4/01/18

Just to comment further. If you say "mon père est dans le prison. " It doesn't mean he is incarcerated but more like he is in the building.

-- Chris (not a native speaker)

Cécile

Kwiziq language super star

4 January 2018

4/01/18

very good point!
Something like " mon père travaille dans la prison de Fresnes."

Helen

Kwiziq community member

6 January 2018

6/01/18

CORRECT

Helen

Kwiziq community member

6 January 2018

6/01/18

IT SHOULD SAY "MON PERE EST EN PRISON."

Pat

Kwiziq community member

15 June 2018

15/06/18

I have exactly the same question.  An example later on uses dans la when saying "there is a riot in the prison"  My firstt inclination is that they are using prison in the dans only sentence to indicate prison as place in general, but what if there is only one prison he could be in?

Anastasios

Kwiziq community member

8 December 2017

3 replies

bonsoir!pourquoi ¨je vais en ville

Mais ¨Je vais au soupermarchè

Ron

Kwiziq community member

9 December 2017

9/12/17

Bonjour Anastasio,
C'est une très bonne question. J'ai fait une recherche de fichiers sur le Web et je n'en a pas trouvé la bonne réponse.
Bonne chance,

Chris

Kwiziq community member

10 December 2017

10/12/17

Je vais en ville. -- I go into town.


The "en" connotes a more general location than "à" or "dans".
Another example of the same ilk:


Je suis en classe. -- I am in class.
Je suis dans la classe. -- I am in the classroom.


Je vais au supermarché -- I go to the supermarket.


This is a very specific location you are referring to: hence "à" and not "en". Yet another example:


Je vais venir en voiture. -- I am going to come by car.
Je suis dans la voiture. -- I am in the car.


I hope this helps to elucidate the difference in meaning.


-- Chris (not a native speaker but one who loves infrequently used English words. :)

Aurélie

Kwiziq language super star

11 December 2017

11/12/17

Bonjour Anastasio! 


To complete Chris's answer :)


"en" and "au" mean two different things here:


en = (in)to, in


au = to the, in the


Here are links to our related lessons:


https://french.kwiziq.com/revision/grammar/prepositions-locations-dans-versus-en


https://french.kwiziq.com/revision/grammar/contractions-of-articles-a-le-au-a-les-aux-de-le-du-de-les-des


I hope that's helpful!


À bientôt !

Rene

Kwiziq community member

5 November 2017

2 replies

Bonjour kwiziq,

Merci pour cette leçon. Les exemples et le vidéo ont été très utiles.

Chris

Kwiziq community member

6 November 2017

6/11/17

Juste une petite correction: Les exemples et le vidéo sont très utiles (are very helpful).

-- Chris (not a native speaker)

Cécile

Kwiziq language super star

22 June 2018

22/06/18

Hi Rene,


De rien!


just another little correction - Vidéo is feminine so la vidéo.

Rene

Kwiziq community member

5 November 2017

1 reply

Tony,

The rule you are confused about deals with "When referring to the street, road, avenue, or boulevard people live on. " I hope that helps. Rene (not a native French speaker)

Ron

Kwiziq community member

18 November 2017

18/11/17

When referring to the street, road, avenue, or boulevard people live on (using habiter), you can either use dans la/le, simply la/le or nothing at all.
BUT you can NEVER use sur (i.e. on) in that context!

Tony

Kwiziq community member

22 September 2017

3 replies

Hello,

Thanks for the clarification Ron, but I am still a bit confused. In the lesson, it says that with vivre ot être we are to use dans or nothing. Does that mean we cannot use en with the verb être. I am confused because there is an example that says "Je suis en class." That example uses être, but also uses en.

Ron

Kwiziq community member

22 September 2017

22/09/17

Avec être (to be) or vivre (to live), you CAN use either dans la/le OR nothing at all.
Ce magasin est dans l'avenue Jeanne d'Arc.
This shop is on Avenue Jeanne d'Arc.
Ce magasin est avenue Jeanne d'Arc.
This shop is on Avenue Jeanne d'Arc.
I do NOT take the explanation to mean «with vivre or être we are to use dans or nothing.» It states that you can use either «dans la/le» or nothing. The examples above illustrate this quite nicely; however, the use of «en» differs somewhat in the locution.
Here are a few other links that explain «dans vs en» usage a little differently.
http://www4.ncsu.edu/~dsbeckma/110Dans-en.html
https://www.thoughtco.com/learn-essential-french-prepositions-4078684
https://french.stackexchange.com/questions/21/when-to-use-en-vs-dans
The better way to indicate the difference in usage is by a couple of examples, so:
Je suis dans la voiture ---> I am in the car
Je suis en voiture --> I'm in the car
«Does that mean we cannot use en with the verb être.» with your question here, yes en can be used with être as can be seen in the examples.
I get the sense that the confusion stems from various locutions. With continuing to study French, this will become clear with time.
Bonne journée.

Tony

Kwiziq community member

27 September 2017

27/09/17

Merci beaucoup Ron

Chris

Kwiziq community member

6 November 2017

6/11/17

You can say "Je suis dans la voiture" and also "je suis en voiture". Both mean different things which can be a bit troublesome to tell apart in English. I'll give it a try:

Je suis dans la voiture -- I am in the car. You emphasize that you are inside the car.
Je suis en voiture -- You are in the car also but the emphasis is that you travel by car not that you are physicall inside the car (which, of course, you have to be anyway).

This distinction between "dans" inside and "en" a more general or inferred inside can also be seen in this example:

Je suis dans la classe -- I am in the classroom.
Je suis en classe -- I am attending a class (and, of course, I am also in the classroom).

Je suis dans la ville -- I am in the town.
Je suis en ville -- I am in town.

-- Chris (not a native speaker).
Clever stuff underway!