Look at these more formal questions:
Qu'aimez-vous?What do you like?
Que veut Paul?What does Paul want?
Que penses-tu?What do you think?
Que dessinent les enfants?What are the children drawing?
To ask a question starting with what, the more formal way is to use que followed by the inverted form of the statement (verb first).
Note that que becomes qu' when followed by a vowel.
The main difference with qu'est-ce que is that this alternative form is never followed by the inverted form when using subject pronouns:
Qu'est-ce que vous aimez ?What do you like?
Qu'est-ce que tu penses ?What do you think?
Compare this lesson with other ways to make questions:
Forming inverted questions in Le Présent with il, elle, on
Forming inverted questions in Le Présent (except il, elle, on forms)
Asking yes/no questions with intonation, est-ce que, n'est-ce pas
Questions with qui, que, quoi, quand, où, comment, pourquoi, combien
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